Bacteria trapped inside the structure of teeth migrate throughout the body. They may infect any organ, gland, or tissue and can damage the heart, kidneys, joints, eyes, brain, and endanger pregnant women. Learn how these infections were discovered by Weston A. Price, DDS in a 25 year Root Canal Research Program which was carried out under the auspices of the American Dental Association, and were subsequently covered-up.
Brush with the future of toothpaste. Nano-hydroxyapatite (n-Ha) toothpaste works. Boka’s nano-hydroxyapatite (n-Ha) toothpaste remineralizes teeth, supports enamel health, and freshens breath, all without fluoride, sulfates, parabens, or artificial flavors.
This study aims to critically summarize the literature about nano-hydroxyapatite. The purpose of this work is to analyze the benefits of using nano-hydroxyapatite in dentistry, especially for its preventive, restorative and regenerative applications. We also provide an overview of new dental materials, still experimental, which contain the nano-hydroxyapatite in its nano-crystalline form.
Hydroxyapatite is one of the most studied biomaterials in the medical field for its proven biocompatibility and for being the main constituent of the mineral part of bone and teeth. In terms of restorative and preventive dentistry, nano-hydroxyapatite has significant remineralizing effects on initial enamel lesions, certainly superior to conventional fluoride, and good results on the sensitivity of the teeth.
The nano-HA has also been used as an additive material, in order to improve already existing and widely used dental materials, in the restorative field (experimental addition to conventional glass ionomer cements, that has led to significant improvements in their mechanical properties). Because of its unique properties, such as the ability to chemically bond to bone, to not induce toxicity or inflammation and to stimulate bone growth through a direct action on osteoblasts, nano-HA has been widely used in periodontology and in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Its use in oral implantology, however, is a widely used practice established for years, as this substance has excellent osteoinductive capacity and improves bone-to-implant integration.
The purpose of this work is to analyze what, up to now, is reported in the literature about the advantages of nano-hydroxyapatite in dentistry, especially in preventive and restorative dentistry, up to its use in oral surgery, such as implantology and periodontal regeneration. We also attempt to provide a broad overview of the new materials that are being born from experimental research, with particular attention to the materials commonly used in restorative dentistry, such as composite resins.
Tooth enamel is the most mineralized tissue of human body. Its composition is 96 wt.% inorganic material and 4 wt.% organic material and water. In dentin, the inorganic material represents 70 wt.%. This inorganic material is mainly composed by a calcium phosphate related to the hexagonal hydroxyapatite, whose chemical formula is Ca10(PO4)6·2(OH). X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of enamel and dentin also indicated the presence in small quantities of other elements such as Na, Cl and Mg.
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the main component of enamel, which gives an appearance of bright white and eliminates the diffuse reflectivity of light by closing the small pores of the enamel surface. Hydroxyapatite has long been among the most studied biomaterials in the medical field for both its proven biocompatibility and for being the main constituent of the mineral part of bone and teeth. Hydroxyapatite is also an important source of calcium and phosphate, very important for the remineralization of demineralized enamel areas.
The inorganic component of all the mineralized tissues of the human body is, in fact, made up of a large prevalence of calcium phosphatesalts. Other inorganic materials such as calcium carbonates and sulphates are present in smaller quantities too; in particular hydroxyapatite represents 60–70% and 90% in weight of bone and enamel respectively. The recently developed interest for nanotechnology in many fields, is producing interesting and imminent applications in dentistry for nano-hydroxyapatite, which presents crystals ranging in size between 50 and 1000 nm. The nano-hydroxyapatite has a strong ability to bond with proteins, as well as with fragments of plaque and bacteria, when contained in toothpastes. This ability is due to the size of nanoparticles, which considerably increase the surface area to which proteins can bind. Besides, nano-hydroxyapatite also acts as filler because it repairs small holes and depressions on enamel surface, a function enhanced by the small size of the particles that compose it.
The Japanese company Sangi Co. Ltd was the first to take an interest in hydroxyapatite, after purchasing the rights ifrom NASA (U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Authority) in 1970. The astronauts, in fact, lost minerals from the teeth and bones in the absence of gravity, and NASA proposed a synthetic hydroxyapatite as a repairing material. The Sangi Co. Ltd had the idea in 1978 to launch toothpaste that could repair the tooth enamel, which contains for the first time nano-hydroxyapatite (Apadent). In 2006, the first toothpaste containing synthetic hydroxyapatite biomimetic as an alternative to fluoride for the remineralization and repair of tooth enamel appeared in Europe. The biomimetic hydroxyapatite function is to protect the teeth with the creation of a new layer of synthetic enamel around the tooth, rather than hardening the existing layer with fluorine, that chemically changes into calcium halophosphate [Ca5(PO4)3F].
In its granular form, hydroxyapatite is currently used in clinical dental practice to reconstruct periodontal bone defects, to the fill bone defects after cystectomy, after apicoectomy, after the loss of dental implants and to increase of the thickness of atrophic alveolar ridges. Shaped blocks of hydroxyapatite are especially used in maxillofacial surgery (bone defects after trauma, osteotomies and reductive stabilization, reconstruction of facial skeleton, replacement of parts of orbital and maxillary bone). Blocks, as well as granular powder, can also be used in pre-prosthetic surgery to increase the thickness of the alveolar ridge.
Studies on biocompatibility have shown that hydroxyapatite chemically binds to bone and induces no phenomena of toxicity nor inflammatory, local or systemic. Some researches show that the hydroxyapatite, unlike tricalcium phosphate, doesn’t undergo resorption. Other authors have instead found resorption of hydroxyapatite. Thanks to its chemical and crystallographic affinity with inorganic components that constitute the bone, hydroxyapatite is able to establish chemical bonds and to ensure a more rapid integration of titanium implants to bone and surrounding tissues.
The use of nano-hydroxyapatite as a material that could improve the properties of materials currently used in restorative dentistry has been studied. Moshaverina et al. in 2008 (1) have focused on the addition of N-vinylpyrrolidone containing acids, nano-hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite to conventional glass ionomer cements (GIC). These cements have unique properties such as biocompatibility, anticariogenic action (due to the release of fluorides) and adhesion to many dental structures. In this study the attention was paid to the search for materials to be added to common glass ionomer cements available on the market, Fuji II GC, in order to improve its mechanical properties.
Nano-hydroxy and fluorapatite have been synthesized using a sol-gel technique in an ethanol base.
The results showed that after 1 and 7 days, the nano-HA/fluorapatite added to cements howed greater hardness to compression (CS) 177–179 MPa, a higher hardness to diametrical tension (DTS) 19–20 MPa and a higher hardness to biaxial flexibility (BFS) 26–28 MPa, compared to the control group (160 MPa in CS, 14 MPain DTS and 18 MPa in BFS) (Tab. 1). Therefore, glass ionomers containing nano-bioceramics are very promising restorative dental materials with improved mechanical properties and strong binding to dentin, and may very soon replace GIC currently on the market. From these studies it seems to emerge, in fact, an unmistakable statistical datum: modified GICs with the above listed substances possess much higher capacity than traditional materials.
This is being penned for family & friends since most of us were gifted with 32 teeth which are truly a great gift. Health is so very Prescious and everywhere we turn, health is being systematically destroyed.
Education is always the key just as truth is imperative where too many uphold the lie of the cut, burn, poison profession, concerning the medical profession & big pharma, resulting in a very sick society. Take a hard look at what’s being done to the children through food, vaccines, government schools, corporate churches for corporate fictions. It’s way past time to set the captives free.
Please don’t ignore the truth. Awaken to the Corporatocracy because the world has a hard time with free thinkers along with those who may go against the grain. Truth will always stand, will you?
Remember, team dark runs the world just as Team Christ redeems the world for those walking in obedience which He called us too. Are you called, are you involved and doing your part whatever that may be…